Scientists find new way to mobilize immune system against viruses

University of British Columbia scientists have uncovered an intricate chain reaction in the body's immune system and have used the knowledge to develop a new treatment against harmful viruses. Viral pandemics, such as the coronavirus that caused the deadly SARS outbreak in 2002, have caused hundreds of deaths in Canada, yet effective anti-viral drugs are rare.

A key element to this natural immune response is an antiviral protein in the blood called Interferon alpha. Like soldiers, Interferon alpha is quickly deployed by the body to fight viruses and removed just as quickly to restore equilibrium.

As described in the current issue of the prestigious journal Nature Medicine, a team led by Overall from UBC's Department of Oral Biological and Medical Sciences and Bruce McManus from UBC's Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine has discovered that an enzyme called MMP12 serves double-duty in the deployment of the critical antiviral protein: it first enters the infected cell to activate Interferon alpha and then sends it outside the cell membrane to fight viruses. After the job of Interferon alpha is done, MMP12 dissolves the protein during the healing process.

Overall has developed a new antiviral drug that blocks MMP12 from dissolving Interferon alpha outside the cell, giving the immune system an added boost by keeping levels of the protein high in the bloodstream. The drug cannot penetrate cell membranes, making it unable to interfere with the beneficial work inside the cell. The drug has been shown to effectively treat viral infections in mice models and holds promise as a new broad-spectrum antiviral treatment.

"Because the drug isn't virus-strain specific and boosts the body's own immune response to fight infections, it could be effective for even emergent, unknown viruses and eliminate the lag time required to first identify and sequence the virus genetic material before we can treat it," says Overall.

A new transcriptional role for matrix metalloproteinase-12 in antiviral immunity.
David J Marchant, Caroline L Bellac, Theo J Moraes, Samuel J Wadsworth, Antoine Dufour, Georgina S Butler, Leanne M Bilawchuk, Reid G Hendry, A Gordon Robertson, Caroline T Cheung, Julie Ng, Lisa Ang, Zongshu Luo, Karl Heilbron, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Taylor Bucyk, Andrei Karpov, Laurent Devel, Dimitris Georgiadis, Richard G Hegele, Honglin Luo, David J Granville, Vincent Dive, Bruce M McManus & Christopher M Overall.
Nature Medicine (2014) doi:10.1038/nm.3508

Most Popular Now

Fasenra (benralizumab) receives US FDA approval fo…

AstraZeneca and its global biologics research and development arm, MedImmune, announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Fasenra (benralizumab)...

Alzheimer's disease might be a 'whole body' proble…

Alzheimer's disease, the leading cause of dementia, has long been assumed to originate in the brain. But research from the University of British Columbia and Chinese scie...

Cancer cells destroyed with dinosaur extinction me…

Cancer cells can be targeted and destroyed with the metal from the asteroid that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, according to new research by an international col...

Novartis confirms leadership in multiple sclerosis…

Novartis today announced it will present 54 scientific abstracts from across its multiple sclerosis (MS) research portfolio at the 7th Joint European and Americas Committ...

Amgen and Novartis announce expanded collaboration…

Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) and Novartis announced an expanded collaboration with the Banner Alzheimer's Institute (BAI) to initiate a new trial - the Alzheimer's Prevention Init...

Transplanted hematopoietic stem cells reverse dama…

Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that a single infusion of wildtype hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into a mous...

Novartis announces the planned acquisition of Adva…

Novartis announced today, that it has entered a memorandum of understanding with Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) under which Novartis intends to commence a tender...

'Precision Medicine' may not always be so precise

Precision Medicine in oncology, where genetic testing is used to determine the best drugs to treat cancer patients, is not always so precise when applied to some of the w...

China's out of control 'silent killer' affects one…

More than one-third of adults in China have high blood pressure - often dubbed the "silent killer" for its lack of symptoms - but only about one in 20 have the condition ...

New tissue-engineered blood vessel replacements on…

Researchers at the University of Minnesota have created a new lab-grown blood vessel replacement that is composed completely of biological materials, but surprisingly doe...

New US study reveals key reasons why millions of p…

Few of the more than 90 million Americans(1) with obesity are seeking and receiving long-term obesity care, according to new data from the Awareness, Care and Treatment I...

Efficacy and safety maintained in patients who swi…

Boehringer Ingelheim today announced one-year data from VOLTAIRE®-RA, a pivotal Phase III clinical trial comparing Cyltezo® (adalimumab-adbm) and reference product Humira...

Pharmaceutical Companies

[ A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z ]